What are post insulator and pin insulator?
There are 5 types of insulators used in transmission lines as overhead insulation:pin insulator,suspension insulator,strain insulator,stay insulator and shackle insulator.Pin, suspension, and strain insulators are always used in medium to high voltage systems. While stay and shackle insulators are mainly used in low voltage applications.
Post insulator - A type of insulator in the 1930s that is more compact than traditional pin-type insulators and which has rapidly replaced many pin-type insulators on lines up to 69 kV and in some configurations, can be made for operation at up to 132 kV.
Pin insulators are the earliest developed overhead insulator, but are still commonly used in power networks up to 33 kV system. Pin type insulator can be one part, two parts or three parts type, depending upon application voltage.
Post insulators are similar to Pin insulators, but post insulators are more suitable for higher voltage applications.In addition Post insulators have a higher number of petticoats and a greater height compared to pin insulators. The insulator is made of one piece of porcelain ,glass or composite material and it has clamp arrangement are in both top and bottom end for fixing.
Post insulators are commonly used in the substation or generating substation.The specifications of post insulator is as follow:
The main differences between pin insulator and post insulator are:
In a substation, it is suitable for different voltage level (from a higher to lower voltage).
Always it is placed in a vertical position.
It helps to protect switch gear, transformers, and other connecting devices.
This types of insulator have strong mechanical strength.
In a 11 kV system we generally use one part type insulator where whole pin insulator is one piece of properly shaped porcelain or glass.As the leakage path of insulator is through its surface, it is desirable to increase the vertical length of the insulator surface area for lengthening leakage path. We provide one, two or more rain sheds or petticoats on the insulator body to obtain long leakage path.In addition to that rain shed or petticoats on an insulator serve another purpose. We design these rain sheds or petticoats in such a way that while raining the outer surface of the rain shed becomes wet but the inner surface remains dry and non-conductive. So there will be discontinuations of conducting path through the damp pin insulator surface.In higher voltage systems – like 33KV and 66KV – manufacturing of one part porcelain pin insulator becomes more difficult. The higher the voltage, the thicker the insulator must be to provide sufficient insulation. A very thick single piece porcelain insulator is not practical to manufacture.
In this case, we use multiple part pin insulator, where some properly designed porcelain shells are fixed together by Portland cement to form one complete insulator unit. We generally use two parts pin insulators for 33KV, and three parts pin insulator for 66KV systems.
Designing Consideration of Electrical Insulator:
The live conductor attached to the top of the pin insulator which is at the live potential. We fix the bottom of the insulator to supporting structure of earth potential. The insulator has to withstand the potential stresses between conductor and earth. The shortest distance between conductor and earth, surrounding the insulator body, along which electrical discharge may take place through the air, is known as flashover distance.
When the insulator is wet, its outer surface becomes almost conducting. Hence the flashover distance of insulator is decreased. The design of an electrical insulator should be such that the decrease of flashover distance is minimum when the insulator is wet. That is why the uppermost petticoat of a pin insulator has umbrella type designed so that it can protect, the rest lower part of the insulator from the rain. The upper surface of the topmost petticoat is inclined as less as possible to maintain maximum flashover voltage during raining.
The rain sheds are made in such a way that they should not disturb the voltage distribution. They are so designed that their subsurface at a right angle to the electromagnetic lines of force.
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